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【Rayclass | 锐课堂】Laser Deep Carving
Date:2019-08-30Source:Original article

在模具、标牌、五金配件、广告板、汽车车牌等产品上,传统的腐蚀工艺不仅会带来环境污染,且效率较低。机加工等进行雕刻深度的传统工艺应用,产生的金属废弃物和冷却液也会带来环境的污染,虽然效率提高但精度不高,不能雕刻锐角。对比金属深雕的传统方式,激光金属深雕具有无污染、精度高、雕刻内容灵活、可满足复杂雕刻工艺等优势。

In the application of molds, signs, hardware accessories, advertising boards, car license plates and other products, the traditional corrosion process will not only bring environmental pollution, but also low efficiency. Conventional process applications such as machining, such as metal waste and coolant, can also cause environmental pollution. Although the efficiency is improved, the accuracy is not high and the acute angle cannot be engraved. Compared with the traditional way of deep metal carving, laser metal deep carving has the advantages of no pollution, high precision, flexible engraving content, and can meet complex engraving techniques.

 

金属深雕常见的材料有碳钢、不锈钢、铝、铜、贵金属等,锐科工程师针对不同金属材料进行高效深雕参数研究。

Common materials for metal deep carving include carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, precious metals, etc. Now, Raycus engineer will conduct high-efficiency deep carving parameters research for different metal materials.

 

 

实际案例分析

Case Analysis

 

试验平台配备RAYLASE(MS-II-10)振镜和聚焦镜(F=163/210)进行深雕试验。雕刻尺寸为10mm×10mm,设置雕刻初始参数,如表1所示。改变离焦量、脉宽、速度、填充间距等工艺参数,使用深雕测试仪进行深度测量,找到雕刻效果最佳的工艺参数。

The test platform was equipped with a RAYLASE (MS-II-10) galvanometer and focusing mirror (F=163/210) for deep carving experiments. The carving size is 10mm×10mm, and the initial parameters of the carving are set, as shown in Table 1. By changing the process parameters such as defocus amount, pulse width, speed, and filling pitch, the depth measurement is performed using a deep-draw tester to find the process parameters with the best carving effect.

功率Power(W)

100

频率Frequency (kHz)

100

脉宽Pulse Width (ns)

240

速度Speed(mm/s)

2000

填充间距Filling Pitch (mm)

0.04

焦距Focal Length (mm)

163

表1深雕初始参数

Table 1 Deep Carving Initial Parameters

 

通过工艺参数表,我们可以看出有较多参数对最终的深雕效果产生影响,我们通过控制变量法来寻找各个工艺参数对效果影响的过程,现一一给大家揭晓。

Through the process parameter table, we can see that there are more parameters affecting the final deep carving effect. We use the control variable method to find the process of the influence of each process parameter on the effect, which is now shared to everyone.

01

离焦量对雕刻深度的影响

The effect of defocusing on engraving depth

01

首先使用RFL-100M激光器雕刻初始参数,在不同金属表面进行雕刻试验,重复雕刻100次,时间为305S,改变离焦量,并测试离焦量对不同材料雕刻效果的影响。

Firstly, the RFL-100M laser was used to deep carving the initial parameters, and the carving test was carried out on different metal surfaces. The carving was repeated 100 times for 305S, the defocus amount was changed, and the effect of the defocus amount on the  carving effect of different materials was tested.

图1 离焦量对材料雕刻深度的影响对比图

Figure 1 Comparison of the effect of defocusing on the carving depth of materials

 

如图1所示,我们可以得到以下关于使用RFL-100M在不同金属材料进行深雕时,不同的离焦量对应的最大深度。通过以上数据得出在金属表面进行深雕需要一定离焦量才能得到最佳的雕刻效果,其中雕刻铝和黄铜的离焦量为-3mm雕刻不锈钢和碳钢的离焦量为-2mm。

As shown in Fig. 1, we can get the following maximum depth corresponding to different defocusing quantities when deep carving different metal materials using RFL-100M. From the above data, it is necessary to obtain a certain amount of defocusing on the surface of the metal to get the best carving effect, wherein the defocusing amount of the carved aluminum and brass is -3 mm, and the defocusing amount of the carved stainless steel and carbon steel is -2 mm.

02

脉宽对雕刻深度影响

The effect of pulse width on carving depth

02

通过上述试验得出RFL-100M在不同材料深雕时的最佳离焦量,使用最佳离焦量,改变初始参数中的脉宽和对应频率,其他参数不变。这主要由于RFL-100M激光器的每个脉宽都有对应的基频频率,当低于对应的基频频率时输出功率低于平均功率,当频率高于对应基频频率时峰值功率会降低,而雕刻试验需要使用脉宽最大、能力最大进行测试,所以试验频率为基频频率,相关试验数据在后面试验中会进行详细表述。每个脉宽对应的基频频率为:240ns,10kHz、160ns,105kHz、130ns,119kHz、100ns,144kHz、58ns,179kHz、40ns,245kHz、20ns,490kHz、10ns,999kHz。通过以上脉冲和频率进行雕刻试验,试验结果如图2所示

Through the above test, the optimal defocus amount of RFL-100M in deep carving of different materials is obtained. Therefore, we use the optimal amount of defocus to change the pulse width and corresponding frequency in the initial parameters, and the other parameters are unchanged. This is mainly because the RFL-100M laser has a corresponding fundamental frequency for each pulse width. When the frequency is lower than the corresponding fundamental frequency, the output power is lower than the average power. When the frequency is higher than the corresponding fundamental frequency, the peak power is reduced. The carving test needs to use the pulse width and the maximum capacity to test, so the test frequency is the fundamental frequency. The fundamental frequency corresponding to each pulse width is: 240 ns, 100 kHz, 160 ns, 105 kHz, 130 ns, 119 kHz, 100 ns, 144 kHz, 58 ns, 179 kHz, 40 ns, 245 kHz, 20 ns, 490 kHz, 10 ns, 999 kHz. The deep carving test was carried out by the above pulse and frequency, and the test results are shown in Fig. 2.

图2 脉冲宽度对雕刻深度的影响对比图

Figure 2 Comparison of the effect of pulse width on carving depth

 

从图表中可以看出RFL-100M雕刻时,随着脉宽的减小其雕刻深度也相应减小。240ns时各材料雕刻深度均最大, 这主要是由于降低脉宽导致单脉冲能量降低,进而降低了对金属材料表面的破坏性,导致雕刻深度越来越小。

The figure demonstrates that the RFL-100M carving depth decreases as the pulse width decreases. At 240 ns, the carving depth of each material is the largest, which is mainly due to the reduction of the pulse width, which causes the single pulse energy to decrease, thereby reducing the destructiveness to the surface of the metal material, resulting in a smaller carving depth.

03

频率对雕刻深度影响

The effect of frequency on carving depth

03

通过上述试验得出RFL-100M在不同材料雕刻时的最佳离焦量和脉宽,使用最佳离焦量和脉宽保持不变,改变频率,测试不同频率对雕刻深度的影响,试验结果如图3所示。

Through the above test, the optimal defocus amount and pulse width of RFL-100M in carving of different materials are obtained. The optimal defocus amount and pulse width are kept unchanged, the frequency is changed, and the influence of different frequencies on the carving depth is tested. The test results are shown in Fig. 3.

图3 频率对材料深雕的影响对比图

Figure 3 Comparison of the effect of frequency on deep carving

 

从图表中可以看出RFL-100M激光器在对各材料进行雕刻时,随着频率的增加各材料雕刻深度相应的减小,其频率为100kHz时雕刻深度均最大,纯铝最大雕刻深度为2.43mm,黄铜为0.95mm,不锈钢为0.55mm,碳钢为0.36mm。其中,铝材对频率的改变最为敏感,当频率为600kHz时,无法在铝材表面进行深雕。而黄铜、不锈钢和碳钢受频率影响较小,但也呈现出频率增加雕刻深度越来越小的趋势。

It shows from the figure that when the RFL-100M laser carving each material, the carving depth of each material decreases correspondingly with increasing frequency. The carving depth is the largest when the frequency is 100 kHz, the maximum carving depth of pure aluminum is 2.43mm, the brass is 0.95mm, the stainless steel is 0.55mm, and the carbon steel is 0.36mm. Among them, aluminum is most sensitive to changes in frequency. When the frequency is 600 kHz, deep carving cannot be performed on the surface of aluminum. However, brass, stainless steel and carbon steel are less affected by the frequency, but they also show a tendency to increase the carving depth by frequency.

04

速度对雕刻深度影响

The effect of speed on carving depth

04

图4  雕刻速度对雕刻深度的影响对比图

Figure 4 Comparison of the effect of speed on carving depth

 

从图表中可以看出随着雕刻速度的增加雕刻深度相应的减小,雕刻速度为500mm/s时各材料雕刻深度均最大,雕刻铝,铜,不锈钢和碳钢的最大深度分别为:3.4mm、3.24mm、1.69mm、1.31mm。

The figure demonstrates that as the carving speed increases, the carving depth decreases correspondingly. When the carving speed is 500mm/s, the carving depth of each material is the largest, and the maximum depth of carving aluminum, copper, stainless steel and carbon steel are 3.4mm, 3.24mm, 1.69mm, 1.31mm respectively. 

05

填充间距对雕刻深度影响

The effect of filling pitch on carving depth

05

图5  填充密度对雕刻效率的影响

Figure 5 The effect of packing density on carving efficiency

 

从图表中可以看出当填充密度为0.01mm时,铝、黄铜、不锈钢、碳钢的雕刻深度均为最大值,随着填充间隙的增加雕刻深度相应的减小;填充间距从0.01mm增加到0.1mm过程中,其完成100次雕刻所需时间均逐渐缩短,填充间距大于0.04mm时,其缩短时间幅度明显降低。

The figure shows that the carving depth of aluminum, brass, stainless steel and carbon steel is the maximum when the packing density is 0.01 mm, and the carving depth decreases correspondingly with the increase of the filling gap. In the process of increasing the filling pitch from 0.01mm to 0.1mm, the time required to complete 100 carving is gradually shortened, and when the filling pitch is greater than 0.04mm, the shortening time range is significantly reduced.

 

结论

Conclusion

 

通过上述试验,我们可以得出使用RFL-100M对不同金属材料深雕的推荐工艺参数:

Through the above tests, we get the best process parameters for deep carving of different metal materials for using RFL-100M.

材料

Material

纯铝

Aluminum

黄铜

Brass

不锈钢

Stainless

Steel

碳钢

Carbon

Steel

聚焦镜焦距

Focal

Length of

Focusing

Lens

163mm

离焦量

Defocus

-3mm

-2mm

脉宽

Pulse

width

240ns

频率

Frequency

100kHz

雕刻速度

Speed

2000

mm/s

1000mm/s

填充间距

Filling

Pitch

0.04mm

0.05mm

0.04mm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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